The ICER Projekt “Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery for Enhanced Energy Efficiency in Heavy Industry” aims at investigating waste heat recovery from industrial and mobile applications, as well as increasing the efficiency of these processes by means of ORC systems.

The company NatSteel from the Tata Group operates a 550 kWe ORC of the Company Turboden S.r.l., to convert the waste heat from a rolling mill reheating furnace into electricity. In this project, this case should be analyzed among others. The focus of the analysis is the process dynamics and problems that can occur during plant operation.


It is typical for waste heat sources from steel, cement and other industries, as well in the mobility sector, that mass flow rate and temperature vary during the operation of the plant. In these dynamic conditions, optimal design and robust control are of primary importance. The efficiency of the entire process has also to be considered.


As part of this project, reference cycles should be developed, which are necessary as boundary conditions for dynamic analysis. Particularly for mobile applications, the boundary conditions can vary significantly. The identified reference cycles should allow optimizing the ORC by means of dynamic simulations, to improve the control of the overall system and minimize stresses and loading on the different components.


Contact: Roberto Pili


[1] Rodrigues C., A History of Heat, Tata Steel, March 2012,