WAAMSim – Simulation-based Distortion Control of Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)

The project WAAMSim aims to enable a cost-efficient production of high-quality aluminum and titanium parts using Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). Together with the industrial partners, the process capability, reliability, and economic efficiency of the WAAM process will be improved in order to enable its industrial application.


With WAAM, three-dimensional metal objects can be produced by controlled deposition and stacking of welding layers. During the deposition process, the part is subjected to periodic heating and cooling. High temperature gradients occur, which cause residual stresses, deformations, and microstructural changes in the produced part. Maintaining thermal distortions within an acceptable range is important for a successful industrialization of WAAM.

Objective and Approach

The research project WAAMSim seeks to understand the effects of process and environmental parameters on the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of WAAM parts. For this purpose, a simulation model is developed based on physical laws and experimental data. The resulting simulation model is able to predict strains and stresses inside the part by considering effects from the welding parameters, welding trajectory, and environmental conditions. Consequently, the simulation model enables the user to digitally adjust and configure process parameters in order to achieve dimension-true parts with the desired mechanical properties. Thereby, a “first-time-right” production of complex components can be achieved and subsequent machining can be reduced. Both are expected to improve the competitiveness of WAAM significantly.


The research project “WAAMSim – Simulation-based Distortion Control of Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing" is funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Regional Development and Energy. We thank our sponsor for their extensive support.

Duration 04/2019 - 03/2022
Project partners Linde AG, Aircraft Philipp Übersee GmbH & Co.
Funded by Bavarian Ministery of Economic Affairs, Regional Development and Energy